How to Properly Charge and Maintain an Electric Scooter Lithium Battery?
Electric scooters have become a highly convenient mode of transportation in our lives today. However, they also come with significant wear and tear, especially concerning their batteries.
Due to the unique structure of lithium-ion batteries, even electric scooters of good quality may experience battery degradation.
Nevertheless, by paying attention to usage methods and regular maintenance, it is possible to maintain the scooter’s range and extend the battery’s lifespan.
Let’s now explore how to charge and maintain lithium-ion batteries to ensure the longevity of electric scooters.
First, we must understand that:
Lithium-ion batteries should not be overcharged or over-discharged.
Hence, nearly all lithium-ion batteries come equipped with protection boards.
In the case of high-power applications like RC models and agricultural drones, battery protection is typically in the form of low-battery warnings, alerting users to return for recharging to prevent over-discharging, eliminating the need for protection boards.
Other regular lithium-ion batteries with protection boards, when used properly, rarely experience overcharging or over-discharging.
However, there are still some precautions to be observed during use to prevent damage to the batteries.
This is especially important for the lithium-ion batteries of electric scooter, which are relatively expensive and entail high replacement costs. We should exercise caution in their use.
How to Properly Charge electric scooter Lithium Batteries?
1. Initial Charge
Battery packs come with some remaining charge from the factory, allowing short rides on electric bikes. After the first ride, it’s essential to perform the initial charge, which should be relatively long (8-12 hours).
After using the battery, make sure to recharge it promptly, avoiding deep discharges.
If the battery remains unused for over two months, a full charge is recommended.
If it’s stored for more than five months, consider a charge and discharge cycle.
Regularly charging the battery when in use, during normal operation, or for long-term storage ensures optimal performance and extends the battery’s lifespan.
2. Normal Charging
Start by connecting the charger to the battery pack that needs charging, and then plug the charger’s power plug into a 220V AC power source. (This sequence of connections prevents the generation of sparks when plugging or unplugging the charger.)
When the power is connected, the charger’s red indicator light will indicate that the battery is undergoing normal charging. Regular charging for 6-8 hours is usually sufficient.
Once the battery is fully charged, unplug the power source first, and then disconnect the battery from the charger. Also, when installing a lithium-ion battery in an electric scooter, ensure that the key switch is in the off position.
The reason for connecting the battery to the charger first is to avoid any risk of sparking that might occur when connecting the charger and battery, which could potentially damage the Battery Management System (BMS) and the charger itself, among other things.
3. Charger Specifications
To ensure the safety of the battery pack during charging and to guarantee the battery pack’s lifespan, only the dedicated lithium battery charger that comes with the battery pack should be used.
If the charger is lost or damaged, please contact the authorized dealer for a replacement. Lead-acid chargers or other types of chargers should not be used, and 48V, 60V, and 72V chargers should not be mixed.
Reason: Lithium batteries are much more chemically active than lead-acid batteries and have higher requirements for chargers. Using counterfeit chargers or incompatible fast chargers not only affects the lifespan of the lithium battery but can also lead to overheating. And that will cause damage to the separator and short-circuiting, which may result in an explosion.
4. Charging Precautions
(1) Once the electric scooter lithium battery is fully charged, promptly disconnect it from the charger, even though lithium battery chargers have an automatic stop function.
(2) Do not charge in temperatures below freezing. Charging below 0°C not only fails to fully charge the battery but also accelerates lithium battery aging.
(3) If you notice the battery heating during charging, stop charging and using it immediately, and check both the charger and the battery.
(4) Keep the charger and battery away from bedrooms, eliminate flammable materials from the vicinity, and ensure a dry environment.
(5) Avoid frequent deep charge and discharge cycles for lithium batteries.
Lithium batteries, unlike nickel-cadmium and lead-acid batteries, do not exhibit any memory effect.
They can be charged anytime, anywhere. Charging with some battery charge remaining not only doesn’t shorten the lifespan but can maintain the battery and extend its cycle life.
For lithium batteries, the correct approach is slow charging, not deep charging.
How to Maintain an electric scooter Lithium Battery?
1. Avoid Using and Storing Lithium Batteries in Extreme Environments
The migration rate of lithium ions in the electrolyte and electrode sheets is closely related to temperature.
In theory, lithium batteries can be used within a temperature range of -20°C to 55°C. In daily life, using lithium batteries within a temperature range of 5°C to 35°C will not harm the batteries.
For users in northern regions, it’s advisable to bring lithium batteries indoors during the winter and avoid leaving them outdoors.
Southern users should avoid exposing batteries to direct sunlight during the summer.
When it comes to the battery storage, it should be kept away from water sources, open flames, and should remain dry. Avoid strong vibrations, impacts, and short-circuits
2. Regular Charging or Replenishing
Since lithium batteries are non-memory batteries, it is recommended to regularly charge or replenish the battery pack after each ride or daily use. This significantly extends the battery pack’s lifespan.
- It is advisable not to ride until the battery pack is completely depleted before recharging.
- Discharging beyond 90% of the battery pack’s capacity is not recommended.
- When the low-voltage indicator on the electric scooterlights up while the vehicle is at a standstill, it should be charged promptly.
3. When Electric Scooter in use
When starting an electric scooter, riding on steep inclines, rough terrain, or against strong headwinds, it is recommended to use pedal assist simultaneously during the ride. This helps extend the lifespan of the battery and the motor.
4. When Electric Bicycle not in use
When an electric scooter is not in use or parked, it is advisable to disconnect the battery pack from the scooter by unplugging the connector or by locking the power source.
This is because the motor and controller consume power in an unloaded state, so it helps prevent unnecessary power drainage.
5. Special Reminders
(1) Do not attempt to open, modify, or damage the battery on your own.
(2) It is strictly prohibited to use this battery in electric scooters of other brands or models.
(3) During use, avoid foreign objects causing a short circuit in the charging and discharging ports.
If electric scooter users follow these practices diligently, the lifespan of their electric scooters will be assured, and battery life will not be a significant concern.