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Lead-Acid Battery or Lithium Battery for E-SCOOTER ?

The choice of battery for electric scooters (E-SCOOTER) is a highly discussed topic.

Lead-acid batteries and lithium batteries are both common choices, each with its own advantages and disadvantages, which significantly impact the performance and user experience of electric scooters.

When selecting the appropriate battery type, it’s essential to consider multiple factors comprehensively.

In this article, we will delve into the applications and comparisons of lead-acid batteries and lithium batteries in electric scooters, aiming to assist you in making a well-informed decision.

The differences between lithium batteries and lead-acid batteries can be summarized in four aspects: cost, energy range, charging, and portability

In general, lead-acid batteries tend to be a more cost-effective option

On the other hand, lithium batteries have a higher energy density, meaning they can store more energy in the same size, and they also charge faster.

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1. Cost

This is typically the most concerning topic for everyone and a key factor in determining “what is the right product?” In most cases, it’s not a simple math problem, and cost-effectiveness actually depends on the requirements of your application.

Lead-acid is a popular cost-effective battery chemistry that is readily available, with no supply safety concerns, and comes in a variety of off-the-shelf sizes. Lead-acid is well-suited for large-scale stationary applications with ample space and low energy demands.

However, when you start considering price based on power or range, lithium-ion technology often becomes the more favorable choice.

2. Energy range

When comparing these two chemistries, lithium-ion has an energy density of 125-600+ Wh/L, while lead-acid batteries have an energy density of 50-90 Wh/L.

In other words, if you were to travel the same distance using each type of battery in the same vehicle, the volume occupied by lead-acid batteries could be ten times that of lithium-ion batteries, and they would also be heavier.

Consequently, using lithium-ion batteries leaves more room for other essential payloads, such as more passengers on a bus or additional packages in an electric delivery truck. 

Higher energy density also provides vehicles with longer ranges, meaning users don’t need to recharge frequently when powered by lithium-ion technology.

3. Charging

Charging lead-acid batteries may take over 10 hours, while lithium-ion batteries can be charged in as little as 3 hours to just a few minutes, depending on the battery’s size. Lithium-ion chemistry can accept faster currents, allowing for quicker charging compared to lead-acid batteries.

This is crucial for time-sensitive applications with high vehicle utilization and shorter downtime intervals. For example, in the case of port tractors, every minute a ship is docked at the port has financial implications for fleet owners, so rapid battery charging during downtime is essential for loading vessels.

According to relevant test data, lithium-ion batteries can undergo full charge and discharge cycles approximately 500 times, whereas lead-acid batteries can only manage around 350 full cycles.

From this data, it’s evident that lithium-ion batteries have a longer lifespan compared to lead-acid batteries, which means they offer a durability advantage. Lead-acid batteries typically have a lifespan of around 2 years, while lithium-ion batteries are more durable and typically last 4-5 years.

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4. Portability

Lithium-ion batteries seen in the market are generally much lighter than lead-acid batteries of the same size.

When comparing batteries of equal weight, lithium-ion batteries typically have one-third the capacity of lead-acid batteries. This means that electric vehicles equipped with lithium-ion batteries are significantly lighter and more portable than those using lead-acid batteries, resulting in easier handling and operation.


With the information provided above, you should now have a better understanding of lithium-ion batteries and lead-acid batteries. 

Both types have their advantages, but in general, it’s usually better to use lithium-ion batteries for E-scooter.

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